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Business letters-Samples n Tips

Business Letters in English

Business letters are formal paper communications between, to or from businesses and usually sent through the Post Office or sometimes by courier. Business letters are sometimes called "snail-mail" (in contrast to email which is faster). This lesson concentrates on business letters but also looks at other business correspondence. It includes:

  • letter
  • memo
  • fax
  • email

Who writes Business Letters?

Most people who have an occupation have to write business letters. Some write many letters each day and others only write a few letters over the course of a career. Business people also read letters on a daily basis. Letters are written from a person/group, known as the sender to a person/group, known in business as the recipient. Here are some examples of senders and recipients:

  • business «» business
  • business «» consumer
  • job applicant «» company
  • citizen «» government official
  • employey «» employee
  • staff member «» staff member

Why write Business Letters?

There are many reasons why you may need to write business letters or other correspondence:

  • to persuade
  • to inform
  • to request
  • to express thanks
  • to remind
  • to recommend
  • to apologize
  • to congratulate
  • to reject a proposal or offer
  • to introduce a person or policy
  • to invite or welcome
  • to follow up
  • to formalize decisions

Read through the following pages to learn more about the different types of business letters, and how to write them. You will learn about formatting, planning, and writing letters, as well as how to spot your own errors. These pages are designed to help you write business letters and correspondence, but they will also help you learn to read, and therefore respond to, the letters you receive. You will also find samples that you can use and alter for your own needs.

Business Letter Vocabulary


extra document or image that is added to an email

block format

most common business letter format, single spaced, all paragraphs begin at the left margin


the content of the letter; between the salutation and signature


small dark dots used to set off items in an unnumbered list

certified mail

important letters that sender pays extra postage for in order to receive a notice of receipt


logical; easy to understand


gets to the point quickly

confidential, personal


diplomacy, diplomatic

demonstrating consideration and kindness

direct mail, junk mail

marketing letters addressed to a large audience

double space

format where one blank line is left between lines of text


extra document or image included with a letter


uses set formatting and business language, opposite of casual


the set up or organization of a document


a word or phrase that indicates what the text below will be about


extra spaces (usually 5) at the beginning of a paragraph



inside address

recipient's mailing information

justified margins

straight and even text, always begins at the same place


specialized paper with a (company) logo or name printed at the top


symbol or image that identifies a specific organization


a blank space that borders the edge of the text

memorandum (memo)

document sent within a company (internal), presented in short form

modified block format

left justified as block format, but date and closing are centered

on arrival notation

notice to recipient that appears on an envelope (e.g. "confidential")


the cost of sending a letter through the Post Office


read through a finished document to check for mistakes


marks used within or after sentences and phrases (e.g. periods, commas)


easy to read


the person who receives the letter

right ragged

format in which text on the right side of the document ends at slightly different points (not justified)


greeting in a letter (e.g. "Dear Mr Jones")

sensitive information

content in a letter that may cause the receiver to feel upset

semi-block format

paragraphs are indented, not left-justified


term used before a name when formally closing a letter

single spaced

format where no blanks lines are left in-between lines of text


blank area between words or lines of text


the feeling of the language (e.g. serious, enthusiastic)


words or phrases used to make a letter flow naturally (e.g. "furthermore", "on the other hand")

Business Letter Formats

There are certain standards for formatting a business letter, though some variations are acceptable (for example between European and North American business letters). Here are some basic guidelines:

  • Use A4 (European) or 8½ X 11 inch (North American) paper or letterhead
  • Use 2.5 cm or 1 inch margins on all four sides
  • Use a simple font such as Times New Roman or Arial
  • Use 10 to 12 point font
  • Use a comma after the salutation (Dear Mr Bond,)
  • Lay out the letter so that it fits the paper appropriately
  • Single space within paragraphs
  • Double space between paragraphs
  • Double space between last sentence and closing (Sincerely, Best wishes)
  • Leave three to fives spaces for a handwritten signature
  • cc: (meaning "copies to") comes after the typed name (if necessary)
  • enc: (meaning "enclosure") comes next (if necessary)
  • Fold in three (horizontally) before placing in the envelope
  • Use right ragged formatting (not justified on right side)

Formatting Business Letters

Block format is the most common format used in business today. With this format, nothing is centred. The sender's address, the recipient's address, the date and all new paragraphs begin at the left margin, like this:

Wicked Wax Co. Ltd
22 Charlton Way
London, SE10 8QY

5th December, 2006

Ms. Maggie Jones
Angel Cosmetics Inc.
110 East 25th Street
New York, NY, 10021

Your ref: 123
Our ref: abc

Dear Ms. Jones,

Forthcoming Exhibition

First paragraph...

Second paragraph...

Third paragraph...


Morris Howard

Morris Howard, President

cc: Brian Waldorf

Enc: catalogue

« may be printed company logo and address












This are other, slightly different ways of formatting a business letter, where for example paragraphs are indented or the date is typed on the right hand side. You can see examples of these in the sample letters.

Formatting Envelopes for Business Letters

It is best to type an envelope for a business letter. Most word document programs contain an envelope labelling function to help you. All you need to do is indicate the size of envelope you are using and type the correct information in the appropriate fields, for example:

Sending company's name and address
is sometimes printed here


Ms. Maggie Jones
Angel Cosmetics Inc.
110 East 25th Street
New York
NY 10021

Formatting Business Memos

Memos are short internal business letters, sent to other staff within the same company. A memo (or memorandum) may also be posted somewhere inside a company for all to see. Memos are becoming less common as electronic mail becomes more common. In contrast to letters, memos do not usually contain salutations or closings, and may be typed or hand-written. The text portion of the memo is generally in block format. Memos should include "From", "To", "Date", "Subject" and the message itself, like this:

[Company logo]


From: [name or initials]

To: [name or initials]


Subject: [short description]

Message starts here...

  • often
  • with
  • bullet
  • points

Formatting Business Email

When using email in business, most of the guidelines for standard formatting in business letters apply. Here are a few differences:

  • Choose a subject line that is simple and straightforward. Refrain from using key words that might cause an email to go into another person's trash box.
  • Repeat the subject line in the body of the email, beneath the salutation (as with a letter).
  • Use the "cc" address line to copy more than one person with your correspondence.
  • You can request a receipt for important letters. The system will automatically let you know when someone has opened your email.
  • Instead of a signature, include your typed name, and below it include your email address, business name and address, phone and fax number, and website if appropriate.
  • Remember that people often print out emails, so your own email address and the subject line would be lost if you had not included them in the body of the email.
  • Internal electronic mail may be formatted more like a memo than a formal letter.

Planning a Business Letter

A business letter is not a place for chit-chat. Unlike business conversations where a certain amount of small talk is used to break the ice, a business letter should be clear and concise. By taking time to plan your letter, you will save time in the writing and proofreading stages. During the planning stage, ask yourself a few simple questions. Jot down your answers to create an outline before you start writing.

Who am I writing this letter to?

Identifying your audience always comes first. Are you writing to more than one person, to someone you don't know, or to someone you have known for a long time? This will help you determine how formal the letter needs to be. You may need to introduce yourself briefly in the letter if the recipient does not know you. You may also need to find out the updated address and title of the recipient. This is a good time to confirm the correct spelling of first and last names.

Why am I writing this letter?

The main reason for the letter should be understood from the subject line and first few sentences. You may cover more than one thing in one business letter, but there will almost always be a general reason for the letter. Identify your main goal and what you hope to accomplish. Review some example reasons why people write business letters on the introductory page of this lesson.

Are there specific details I need to include?

Gather any dates, addresses, names, prices, times or other information that you may need to include before you write your letter. Double check details rather than relying on your memory.

Do I require a response?

Many types of business letter require a response. Others are written in response to a letter that has been received. Before you start writing, determine whether or not you require an action or response from the recipient. Your request or requirement should be very clear. In some cases you may even need to provide a deadline for a response. If you do require a response, how should the recipient contact you? Indicate this information clearly as well. You may want to provide more than one option, such as an email address and a phone number.

How can I organize my points logically?

Think about how you would organize your thoughts if you were speaking rather than writing to the recipient. First you would introduce yourself. Second you would state your concern or reason for writing. After the main content of your letter you would include information on how you can be contacted. The end of the letter is also a place to express gratitude, wish good-luck, or offer sympathy. Here is an example outline:


  • Karen Jacobson
  • Acquaintance (met twice before, briefly)
  • Title: President, The Flying Club
  • Address: 44 Windermere Drive, Waterloo, Ontario L1B 2C5


  • To invite a board member to remain on the board for a second term.
  • Other members suggested that she has enjoyed this position and has been thinking about staying on.
  • No other volunteers have come forward to take over at the end of September.


  • If she decides to stay on she will need to be available for the national meeting on 5 November.
  • Board members who stay for two terms are sometimes asked to take on extra duties, such as taking minutes or hosting social events.


  • She will need to respond by 1 September.
  • She can contact me by email or phone.


  • Return address of our institution
  • Karen Jacobson's title and address
  • Salutation: Dear Ms. Jacobson
  • First paragraph: Introduce myself briefly--remind Karen where we met before. Provide my reason for writing: "I have heard from a number of board members that you may be interested in staying on for a second term. We would be very pleased to have you stay on for another year."
  • Second paragraph: Explain what type of commitment this position will involve this year (once a month meetings, national meeting, plus possible extra duties)
  • Third Paragraph: Provide deadline for response and how to contact me.
  • Closing: Express thanks to Karen for volunteering her time this year

Writing a Business Letter

The term "business letter" makes people nervous. Many people with English as a second language worry that their writing is not advanced enough for business writing. This is not the case. An effective letter in business uses short, simple sentences and straightforward vocabulary. The easier a letter is to read, the better. You will need to use smooth transitions so that your sentences do not appear too choppy.


First and foremost, make sure that you spell the recipient's name correctly. You should also confirm the gender and proper title. Use Ms. for women and Mr. for men. Use Mrs. if you are 100% sure that a woman is married. Under less formal circumstances, or after a long period of correspondence it may be acceptable to address a person by his or her first name. When you don't know the name of a person and cannot find this information out you may write, "To Whom It May Concern". It is standard to use a comma (colon in North America) after the salutation. It is also possible to use no punctuation mark at all. Here are some common ways to address the recipient:

  • Dear Mr Powell,
  • Dear Ms Mackenzie,
  • Dear Frederick Hanson:
  • Dear Editor-in-Chief:
  • Dear Valued Customer
  • Dear Sir or Madam:
  • Dear Madam
  • Dear Sir,
  • Dear Sirs
  • Gentlemen:

First paragraph

In most types of business letter it is common to use a friendly greeting in the first sentence of the letter. Here are some examples:

  • I hope you are enjoying a fine summer.
  • Thank you for your kind letter of January 5th.
  • I came across an ad for your company in The Star today.
  • It was a pleasure meeting you at the conference this month.
  • I appreciate your patience in waiting for a response.

After your short opening, state the main point of your letter in one or two sentences:

  • I'm writing to enquire about...
  • I'm interested in the job opening posted on your company website.
  • We'd like to invite you to a members only luncheon on April 5th.

Second and third paragraphs

Use a few short paragraphs to go into greater detail about your main point. If one paragraph is all you need, don't write an extra paragraph just to make your letter look longer. If you are including sensitive material, such as rejecting an offer or informing an employee of a layoff period, embed this sentence in the second paragraph rather than opening with it. Here are some common ways to express unpleasant facts:

  • We regret to inform you...
  • It is with great sadness that we...
  • After careful consideration we have decided...

Final paragraph

Your last paragraph should include requests, reminders, and notes on enclosures. If necessary, your contact information should also be in this paragraph. Here are some common phrases used when closing a business letter:

  • I look forward to...
  • Please respond at your earliest convenience.
  • I should also remind you that the next board meeting is on February 5th.
  • For futher details...
  • If you require more information...
  • Thank you for taking this into consideration.
  • I appreciate any feedback you may have.
  • Enclosed you will find...
  • Feel free to contact me by phone or email.


Here are some common ways to close a letter. Use a comma between the closing and your handwritten name (or typed in an email). If you do not use a comma or colon in your salutation, leave out the comma after the closing phrase:

  • Yours truly,
  • Yours sincerely,
  • Sincerely,
  • Sincerely yours
  • Thank you,
  • Best wishes
  • All the best,
  • Best of luck
  • Warm regards,

Writing Tips

  • Use a conversational tone.
  • Ask direct questions.
  • Double-check gender and spelling of names.
  • Use active voice whenever possible.
  • Use polite modals (would in favour of will).
  • Always refer to yourself as "I".
  • Don't use "we" unless it is clear exactly who the pronoun refers to.
  • Rewrite any sentence or request that sounds vague.
  • Don't forget to include the date. Day-Month-Year is conventional in many countries; however, to avoid confusion, write out the month instead of using numbers (e.g. July 5th, 2007)

Proofreading a Business Letter

"Proofread" means to read a text carefully to check it for errors and general tone. You should always proofread a business letter before sending it.

The most important thing when proofreading any document is to read the text out loud. Print the letter rather than read it on your computer screen. Make notes where your letter sounds awkward. If possible allow one day between writing and sending your letter. You are more likely to spot any typos or other errors with a fresh eye. (If you have to respond to an important email on the same day, write it in the morning and proofread it after lunch.) Use a spell-check function on your computer program if possible. Computer programs are useful for pointing out passive sentences, subject-verb agreement problems etc. However, be careful when using grammar-check programs. Sometimes they will highlight a phrase that is not actually an error. If you are in doubt, try to simplify the sentence by using a sentence structure that you are more comfortable with.

If possible, ask another person to double-check your letter. You could offer to return the favour for your colleague and become proofreading partners. You can even use standard proofreading marks to make it easier to explain necessary changes. Type "proofreading marks" into an internet search engine, and send the list to your fellow proofreader.


  1. Did you read the letter out loud?
  2. Did you allow some time to pass after writing the letter before proofreading it?
  3. Are your requests, needs, concerns clear?
  4. Are there any long sentences that need to be broken into two?
  5. Do you use we incorrectly?
  6. Do all questions contain a question mark?
  7. Did you include the date?
  8. Did you spell the recipient's name correctly?
  9. Have you used a standard business format (e.g. block)?
  10. Have you used passive sentences that could be changed to active ones?
  11. Have you used standard spelling? (e.g. British English or American English)
  12. If it is an important letter (e.g. a cover letter for a resume), did someone else read it for you?

Resumes, CVs and Covering Letters in English

A resume or CV is a summary of your educational qualifications and work experience. Companies usually want to see your resume when you apply for a job. A covering letter is the letter that accompanies your resume when you send it to a company. Both of the documents are vitally important in the job application process.

There are two ways to read these pages:

  1. Work through them in sequence (click on Next at the end of each page)
  2. Jump to any section you want at any time (click on the links at the top of each page)

At the end are sample resumes and covering letters, with tests to check your understanding and a summary for future reference.

"Helpful information & many thanks!"
Dr. Klaus Wetter, Germany

"Gives very clear instructions on producing powerful and effective CVs."
Terence Desborough, USA

"I like the attention that has been devoted to the use of powerful, yet simple wording."
Hetty Vonk, Canada

"A gem to find on the net! I thought I knew what there was to know about CV's, but you put me straight on a few points. A very useful tool for students of English wishing/planning to be employed by MNCs (Multi National Companies)."
Yvonne Gluyas, Australia

"I thought it was very down-to-earth and extremely simple to understand. I needed some information fast and I got it."
Michael Blunden, UK

You never get a second chance to make a first impression

You have 15 seconds to make a good impression...

When you apply for a job, most employers want to have 2 important documents from you:

  1. A CV or resume
  2. A covering letter

First impressions are important. Your CV and letter are usually the first impression that an employer has of you. And because an employer may have hundreds of job applications to consider, you have about 15 seconds to make sure that first impression is a good one.

Why you need a good CV


Your CV's job is to get you an interview.

Your CV or resume is your visiting card, your ambassador, your shop window. It represents you and it has a specific purpose: to get you an interview! To do this, it must:

  • attract
  • inform
  • persuade
  • sell

A good CV is one of your most important tools in the search for employment.

What a CV or resume is not

A CV is not a book.

A CV is not an obstacle.

A CV is not a tombstone.

A CV is not boring or difficult to read.

A CV is not your life story or autobiography.

A CV is not a catalogue of your personal opinions.

A CV is not a list of problems with past employers.

What a CV or resume is

A CV is short.

A CV is seductive.

A CV is an important document.

A CV answers the question 'Why?'

A CV is interesting and easy to read.

A CV is a list of benefits for the employer.

A CV is as much about the employer as about you.

Why you need a good covering letter


Your covering letter must sell your CV.

Before even looking at your CV, an employer usually reads your covering letter. If it is badly-written, or untidy, or difficult to read, your CV will probably go into the nearest bin. If it is well-written, attractive, easy to read and persuasive, the employer will turn to your CV. It's that simple!

Your Covering Letter


Your covering letter is a sales letter.


Covering letter (noun): short letter sent with another document; cover letter (US)

When you send your CV to apply for a position, you should also include a short letter. This letter is called a covering letter or (in American English) a cover letter. A covering letter sent with a CV/resume is also called a letter of application. Your letter of application is a sales letter. The product it is selling is your CV.


The reader of your letter may be busy and unwilling to waste time on unnecessary details. You should therefore design your letter to be easy to read. It should be short, concise and relevant. It should not be too formal or complicated.

Your letter should:

  1. confirm that you are applying for the position
  2. say where you learned about the position
  3. say why you want the position
  4. say why you would be a benefit to the company
  5. request an interview


The layout of a modern business letter in English is very simple. Your address is at the top, on the right or in the middle. The rest of the letter can be in 'block' format, with each line starting on the left. Try to keep the whole letter on one single page, with plenty of white space.

Here is the typical format for your covering letter:

1 Your address
telephone - fax - email

Put your address + your telephone number, fax and/or email address at the top in the centre OR on the right.

Do NOT put your name here.

1 Your address

2 Date

Do not write the date as numbers only, for two reasons:

  1. It can be considered too official and therefore impolite
  2. All-number dates are written differently in British English (31/12/99) and American English (12/31/99). This can lead to confusion.

3 Destination name and address

This is the name of the person to whom you are writing, his/her job title, the company name and address. This should be the same as on the envelope.

4 Reference

This is the reference number or code given by the employer in their advertisement or previous letter. You write the employer's reference in the form: 'Your ref: 01234'. If you wish to include your own reference, you write: 'My ref: 56789'.

5 Salutation (Dear…)

A letter in English always begins with 'Dear…', even if you do not know the person. There are several possibilities:

  • Dear Sir
  • Dear Madam
  • Dear Mr Smith
  • Dear Mrs Smith
  • Dear Miss Smith
  • Dear Ms Smith

6 Subject

The subject of your letter, which for a job application is normally the Job Title.

7 Body

The letter itself, in 3 to 6 paragraphs.

8 Ending (Yours…)

  • Yours sincerely
  • Yours faithfully
  • Yours truly

9 Your signature

Sign in black or blue ink with a fountain pen.

10 Your name

Your first name and surname, for example:

  • Mary Smith
  • James Kennedy

11 (Your title)

If you are using company headed paper, write your Job Title here. If you are using personal paper, write nothing here.

12 Enclosures

Indicate that one or more documents are enclosed by writing 'Enc: 2' (for two documents, for example).

Should your letter of application be hand-written? Probably not. In some cultures employers require candidates to send letters written by hand. But in the English-speaking world, an employer would usually prefer to receive a letter of application that is word-processed (that is, produced on a computer and printed). A hand-written letter could be considered unprofessional. You must judge according to the country, culture and tradition.

Your CV/Resume


Your CV must get you an interview.


Curriculum Vitae (noun): a brief account of one's education, qualifications and previous occupations. [Latin, = course of life]

CV stands for the Latin words Curriculum Vitae, which mean: the course of one's life. A CV is also called a résumé, resumé or resume (especially in American English). Your CV is a summary of your professional/academic life until now, and it usually concentrates on your personal details, education and work experience.

Your CV's job is very simple: to get you a job interview. To do this, your CV must be:

  • clear
  • well-organised
  • easy to read
  • concise
  • relevant to the job offered


Your CV is the summary of your professional life. You should include everything that is relevant to your employment or career and nothing that is irrelevant. Exactly what you include depends partly on your type of work. There are usually 5 general headings of information to include:

  • personal details - name, address, email and telephone number (and sometimes nationality, age/date of birth and marital status)
  • objective - a headline that summarises the job opportunity you are seeking
  • work experience - your previous employment in reverse chronological order - with most detail for your present or most recent job
  • education - details of secondary and university education - including the establishments and qualifications (but excluding any that are irrelevant to your career)
  • personal interests - demonstrating that you are a balanced, responsible member of society with an interesting life outside work

Sometimes, you may need to give additional information for a particular job or because you have special qualifications. Here is a list of most of the possible headings.


Word-processed or hand-written?

Your CV should be word-processed, for several reasons. Firstly, in the English-speaking world a hand-written CV would be considered unprofessional. Secondly, many recruitment agencies and some employers like to electronically scan CVs (they cannot do this with hand-written CVs). Thirdly, as we shall see later, it will be much easier for you to update and modify your CV to target it to a specific employer.

How many pages?

Unless you are applying to be Secretary General of the United Nations, it is probably best to limit your CV to a maximum of 2 pages. Remember, your CV is a tool to get you an interview: it is not designed to get you the job. You can usually put everything you need to get an interview on 1 or 2 pages. If you put more than this, the employer has too much to read (and may throw your CV into the nearest bin). In addition, if you put everything in the CV, you will have nothing new to say at the interview. Be kind to employers! Leave them some questions to ask you.

What size paper?

Do not be tempted to demonstrate your individuality by using a non-standard paper size: you will simply irritate the employer. There are basically 2 standard paper sizes, depending on the part of the world:

  • A4 (297 x 210 millimetres) - used largely in Europe, including the United Kingdom
  • US Letter Size (8 1/2 x 11 inches) - used largely in the United States

You must judge for yourself the most appropriate size for the company or companies to which you are applying.

What quality paper?

Remember that your CV may be read and handled by several people. It will also be an important document during the interview that you hope to have. Choose a good quality, fairly heavy paper so that it will remain in good condition at all times. Normal photocopying paper is 80g/m2 in weight. This is a little too light and will soon look creased and dirty. 100g/m2 or 115g/m2 would be better.

What sort of typeface?

Choose an easy-to-read typeface. Typefaces are designed for specific purposes. The standard typefaces Times New Roman or Arial are perfect for your CV. Not too small, not too large! A size of 12 point would be appropriate.

DO NOT USE ALL CAPITALS LIKE THIS! CAPITALS ARE VERY DIFFICULT TO READ AND MAY BE CONSIDERED IMPOLITE IN THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING WORLD. Do not use a lot of italic like this. Italic can also be difficult and irritating to read. Do not use a fancy typeface. It is not appropriate for a professional document.

The example shown on this page is a simple demonstration of one basic type of CV. Later on, you can view more complex CVs and resumes in the Samples section.








Thomas Crown









Seeking an International Sales Management position in Information Technology where my extensive sales experience will be used to the full












London, UK




National Sales Manager




  • Increased sales from £60 million to £100 million.
  • Doubled sales per representative from £5 to £10 million.
  • Implemented Internet sales grossing £25 million











Teletrona Systems

Edinburgh, UK




Northern Sales Manager




  • Increased regional sales from £95 million to £200 million.
  • Expanded sales team from 30 to 60 representatives.
  • Suggested new services adding £35 million to revenue.











ESS Holdings

Cambridge, UK




Senior Sales Representative




  • Increased sales by 300% annually.
  • Closed deals with 100 major new accounts.
  • Won over 25 competitor clients - adding £50 million to revenue.











ESS Holdings

Cambridge, UK




Sales Representative




  • Increased sales by 300% annually.
  • Awarded company's highest sales award each year.
  • Developed 'Winning Presentations' training course.











London University

London, UK




  • BA, Business Administration and Information Systems
  • Captain of university Rugby Club.









St Andrew's School

Plymouth, UK




  • 4 GCE 'A' Levels.
  • President of school's Drama Society.










St Andrew's Board of Governors, rugby, drama, chess








17 King's Terrace, Richmond, Surrey, UK
Tel: +44 181 123 456 Email:


In general, 5 or 6 headings will be enough for most resumes or CVs. However, sometimes you will want to use more headings - when applying for a particular job for which additional information is appropriate. Here is a CV layout with most of the possible headings that you can choose from.


'Standard' headings that you find on most CVs.


'Extra' headings that you can add if necessary.


Your name
First name Surname (for example, John Brown)

{short description of image}Include a good photo
if you want
or if requested


17 Any Road, ANYTOWN, Anycountry


+44 171 123 4567


+44 171 123 4567


Personal Information

Marital status:

  • single
  • married
  • divorced
  • separated
  • widowed



Date of birth:

State your date of birth in the form 1 January 1975 or January 1st, 1975



Place of birth:

Town, Country


State the position or opportunity that you are looking for. (This must be short. One or two lines only.)

Summary of qualifications

Make a short list of the qualifications you have for this job. (This should be short. Your full qualifications will appear later under 'Education').

Professional experience

List your jobs in reverse chronological order (last is first).


List your university/school in reverse chronological order (last is first).

Specialized skills

Any additional special abilities you have (for example, computer programming) that may be of interest to the employer.

Patents and publications

List any relevant inventions you have made or books, articles and papers you have published.

Additional professional activities

List any relevant work activities not listed elsewhere.

Professional memberships

List any relevant professional associations or clubs of which you are a member.

Extracurricular activities

List any relevant activities that you have outside work.

Volunteer experience

List any relevant activities (present or past) that you have done unpaid.

Awards received

List any relevant awards or prizes.


List any official recognition of you by a relevant organization.

Security clearance

For certain jobs with government or companies contracted by government, it may be necessary to state your level of authorization to work on classified or confidential projects.

Civil service grades

If relevant, list your grades or levels as a civil servant (that is, state employee).

Community activities

List anything you do for your local community (for example church or school) if it is important or relevant for this job.


If necessary, list the languages you can speak. You can use the following descriptions:

  • mother tongue
  • fluent
  • excellent
  • good
  • some knowledge


Details of travel and exposure to cultural experiences that may support your application.

Interests and activities

List things that you like or like doing (for example governor of local school, going to opera, drama or tennis).


List your favourite leisure-time activities (for example, stamp-collecting). You should include this only if you think it will be interesting for the employer. You may prefer to include this under 'Interests and activities'.

Additional information

Add any additional information that is necessary and relevant for a particular job.


If required, give the names and addresses of (two) people who can give you a reference. Alternatively, you can state 'Available on request.'

Do's and Don'ts

Do this...

Do be positive.

Do look forward to the future.

Do emphasize the benefit you will bring to an employer.

Do use active verbs.

Do keep to the point. Be relevant.

Do create an organised layout.

Do be neat.

Do use good quality paper.

Do use a word-processor (computer).

Do use wide margins.

Do use plenty of white space.

Do use a good quality photo (if you use a photo).

Do check your work for spelling errors.

Do check your work for grammatical errors.

Do ask a friend to look at your CV and letter.

Do sign your letter with a fountain pen.

Don't do this...

Don't look backward to the past.

Don't write CV or Resume at the top.

Don't write Mr, Mrs or Miss in front of your name.

Don't give personal details (place of birth, age etc) unless necessary.

Don't give full addresses of past employers.

Don't give minor or unimportant school qualifications.

Don't give lots of irrelevant or unimportant hobbies.

Don't write names in capital letters.

Don't use lots of different typefaces (fonts) and sizes.

Don't use lots of capital letters, italics or fancy typefaces.

Don't use coloured paper.

Don't make your covering letter more than 1 page.

Don't make your CV/resume more than 2 pages.



Active verbs act.

The Value of Simplicity and Clarity

If you want people to read your CV, your language must be simple and clear:

  • Use short words and short sentences.
  • Do not use technical vocabulary, unless you are sure that the reader will understand it.
  • Talk about concrete facts ('I increased sales by 50%'), not abstract ideas ('I was responsible for a considerable improvement in our market position').
  • Use verbs in the active voice ('I organised this exhibition'), not passive voice ('This exhibition was organised by me'). Generally, the active voice is more powerful, and easier to understand.

The Power of Action Verbs

Certain words are used frequently by recruiters in their job descriptions. You can study recruiters' advertisements and job descriptions and try to use these words in your CV and covering letter.

The most powerful words are verbs. And the most powerful verbs are action verbs. (Action verbs describe dynamic activity, not state).

Verbs of action

to sell, to manage

Verbs of state

to be, to exist

So you should use plenty of action verbs matched to your skills, and use them in the active form, not the passive form. Which of these two sentences do you think is the more powerful?

Active form

I increased sales by 100%.

Passive form

Sales were increased by 100%.

Power Words to Use

Here is a list of typical action verbs categorised by skill:






































































































win over
















British and American English

There are sometimes differences between British and American English and conventions. Here is a guide to some of the most important differences for your CV/resume and covering letter. But remember, this is a guide only - there are no strict rules. For example, some British people like to use 'American' words, and some American people like to use 'British' words.



CV/curriculum vitae



covering letter

cover letter

covering letter

Standard paper size:
A4 (210 x 297 millimetres)

Standard paper size:
Letter (8 1/2 x 11 inches)




Dear Sirs


Yours faithfully

Yours truly

Yours sincerely


Sincerely yours

Yours truly

Managing Director (MD)

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

General Manager

date format: DD/MM/YY
example: 30/12/99
30 December 1999

date format: MM/DD/YY
example: 12/30/99
December 31st, 1999





Function not fashion.

CVs/Resumes for the 21st Century

In the past it was usual to produce your CV/resume and covering letter on paper and submit them by post (snailmail) or fax. Today, it is increasingly usual for companies to ask you to send your CV by email or for candidates to place their CV on a webpage. These are two excellent ways of distributing your CV, but there are several important points that you should not overlook.


When you send your CV by email, you can send it either as inline text (that is, written in the body of the email) or as a file attached to the email (or as a combination of these).

In all cases, please make sure that the subject line is clear, and relevant. Your prospective employer may receive hundreds of CVs by email and many will have subject headings like:

  • CV
  • Job Application
  • John Brown
  • JB
  • Your Vacancy

You can imagine how frustrating it is to sort emails with meaningless subject lines like these (or, worse still, no subject line at all, as sometimes happens). If your name is "John Brown", a good subject line would be:

  • Resume: John Brown
  • CV & Covering Letter: John Brown
  • Job Application: John Brown
  • Application for Post of Sales Manager: John Brown

Inline text

It is best to use "plain text". Yes, you can write your email in "HTML" or "Rich Text", but will your prospective employer be able to read it? Will it arrive correctly formatted? Will colours, typefaces, tabs and spacing, and any special characters like fancy accents be correctly presented? Perhaps yes. Perhaps no. Unless you are certain that what you write will be seen as you intended, you cannot take the chance with such an important document. Plain text, on the other hand, can be read by virtually all email programs world-wide and you can be confident that what you send is what arrives at the other end. However, even with plain text it is advisable to:

  1. Keep the line-length short.
    Use hard carriage returns (the "Enter" key) every 65 characters maximum.
  2. Avoid fancy spacing and tabulation.
    A CV/resume that is beautifully formatted in MS Word or some other word-processing program cannot be reproduced with the same layout in plain text. You should not even attempt it. Instead, you will need a different, simpler approach, similar to the one below.

Formatted document:


Sales Manager

United Technologies Universal Ltd

London, UK


Sales Representative

Wonder Techniques Inc.

New YorkUSA

Plain text email:

2005 to date
Sales Manager
United Technologies Ltd (London, UK)
Sales Representative
Wonder Techniques Inc. (New York, USA)


You should be very careful about sending your CV as an attachment. Many people are very cautious about opening attachments, largely because they can contain viruses, and your email with an uninvited CV attachment may well be deleted before it ever sees the light of day. If you are sure that your prospective employer will accept attachments, then this can be a good way to submit your CV and covering letter.

Be careful too that your documents are properly laid out with a file format that can be read by your prospective employer. An MS Word document (.doc) is almost certain to be readable by anyone, on PC or Mac. Better still, convert it to the universal Rich Text Format (.rtf). If you send your CV produced on some obscure word processing program, and do not convert it to RTF, then do not be surprised if you never hear from your prospective employer again.

Another word of caution: like the subject line for your email, be sure to give your attached files meaningful names. Do not simply attach a file called "CV.doc" or "coveringletter.doc". Once it has been saved to your prospective employer's hard disk, the name will be meaningless, unless they have taken the trouble to change it. But you should not give them this trouble. Instead, call your attachments something like:

  • Resume_John-Brown.doc
  • CV-and-Covering-Letter_John-Brown.doc
  • job-application_john-brown.rtf
  • JohnBrown_Application-for-Post-of-Sales Manager.rtf


It can be a very good idea to place your CV on the Web. This makes access to your CV easy and rapid world-wide. If you wish to retain confidentiality, you can always password protect it. Unfortunately, many people suddenly become artistic as soon as they add pages to the Web. They believe that they can somehow enhance their CV by adding colour, or unusual typefaces, or fancy backgrounds. They pay for their artistry in illegibility. If there is one, immutable law of the Universe, it is that contrast between text and background increases legibility (readability). In general, black text on a plain white background is the easiest text to read. (That is why books, newspapers and magazines the world over are printed in black text on white paper, except for some very special effect.) Remember, too, that a prospective employer may wish to print out your CV, and will almost certainly prefer to have a result that looks more like a conventional CV. Which of the following is easiest to read, and print?

10 Essential Tips

Here are some essential tips that summarize much of what we have already discussed, and add some new ideas. Read them carefully and act on them. They will guarantee that job interview.

Tip... tip 1: Use design that attracts attention

Employers don't have time to read through each of your job descriptions to know if you have the skills they need. The design of your CV must do it for them. Your CV should be well-organized and emphasize the most important points about your experience, skills and education. This information is the first impression that an employer has of you.

Tip... tip 2: Match your headings to the job

Use a job title and skill headings that match the job you want. An employer who sees unrelated job titles or skills will immediately think that you are not right for the job in question.

Tip... tip 3: Write convincing content

Good design will get an employer's attention. But after that, you must concentrate on the content of your CV, the actual descriptions of your skills and abilities, to ensure an interview and good job offer.

Tip... tip 4: Use 'power words'

You need to control the image that an employer has of you. To do this, use power words that match the position you want. If, for example, you are applying for a financial post, you should use as many financial skills power words as possible

Tip... tip 5: Use 0123456789

People react to numbers! Numbers are alive and powerful. They create vivid images in our minds. General statements are easy to ignore. Be specific and use numbers when describing your duties and achievements. Don't talk about 'managing a major turnover'. Talk about 'managing a $27,000,000 turnover'.

Tip... tip 6: Put important information first

List important information at the beginning of your job description. Put statements in your CV in order of importance, impressiveness and relevance to the job you want. A powerful statement with numbers and power words influences every statement that follows.

Tip... tip 7: Find key words from the job description

Let an employer do your work for you! Employers spend much time and money writing job advertisements and descriptions that contain key words for the position offered. Read these descriptions carefully to find the key words. Then use the same key words in your CV and cover letter.

Tip... tip 8: Sell benefits, not skills

Holiday companies do not sell holidays. They sell relaxation, adventure, sun, sea and sand (the benefits of a holiday)! You should not sell your skills (many other people have the same skills). You should sell the benefits of your skills. When you write your skills and past duties, be careful to explain their benefits to the employer.

Tip... tip 9: Create the right image for the salary

Use language that creates the right image for the level of job and salary you want. Position yourself at the appropriate level. The language you use will immediately influence an employer's perception of you.

Tip... tip 10: Target the job

You will have more success if you adjust your CV and cover letter for the specific skills an employer is seeking. This means that you would write one CV for one particular job and a different, modified, CV for another job. You 're-package' yourself. In that way, an employer will see immediately that you correspond to the job description. It is not dishonest to 're-package' yourself. You are simply presenting yourself and your skills in the best light for a particular employer. This will help you to get more interviews. It will also allow you to apply for a wider range of jobs.

Tip... Bonus tip: Solve your employer's (hidden) needs

Employers want people who can solve problems, not create them! Your CV and cover letter should show how you can solve the employer's problems and needs. And in addition to the skills or needs shown in a job advertisement, an employer may have other needs. You should identify these additional needs and show how you can satisfy them too. But concentrate first on the needs listed in the job description. Your additional solutions should come later, and low-key, after you already have the employer's attention.



bill of lading

n. list of goods and shipping instructions; waybill



abbr. cost & freight: includes shipping to named port but not insurance



abbr. cost, insurance & freight: includes insurance and shipping to named port



n. goods or products that are being transported or shipped


certificate of origin

n. a document that shows where goods come from



n. huge box to hold goods for transport - container port n. to containerise v.



n. 1 government tax or duty on imported goods 2 officials who collect this tax



v. to make a statement of taxable goods - customs declaration form n.



abbr. free alongside ship [includes delivery to quayside but not loading]



abbr. free on board: includes loading onto ship



n. goods being transported; cargo



adj. that cannot be undone; unalterable - irrevocable letter of credit n.


letter of credit

n. a letter from a bank authorising a person to draw money from another bank



n. things bought and sold; commodities; wares - also v.


packing list

n. a document that is sent with goods to show that they have been checked


pro forma invoice

n. an invoice or request for payment sent in advance of goods supplied



n. a solid, artificial landing place for (un)loading ships; wharf - quayside n.



v. to send or transport by land, sea or air - also n. shipment n.


shipping agent

n. a person acting for or representing a ship or ships at a port



n. list of goods and shipping instructions; bill of lading - air waybill n.


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